Optimum Magnification Factor in Digital Radiography – Selection Criteria and Formulas

Zscherpel, Uwe; BAM Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung; Germany

Ewert, U.; Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM); Germany

ID: ECNDT-0371-2018
Session: X-ray radiography 1
Room: G3
Date: 2018-06-11
Time: 13:30 - 13:50

The transition from X-ray film to digital detectors in radiography is accompanied by an increase of unsharpness due to the larger inherent digital detector unsharpness in comparison to film. The basic spatial resolution of digital detectors (see EN ISO 17636-2) is used today to describe this unsharpness. The geometrical unsharpness of the radiographic projection of object structures onto the detector plane is determined by the focal spot size of the X-ray tube and the magnification. The focal spot size is measured today (see ASTM E 1165) from pin hole camera exposures or edge unsharpness (see ASTM E 2903). The final image unsharpness is a result of a convolution of the geometrical and inherent detector unsharpness function, divided by the magnification factor of the object onto the detector plane. Different approximations of this convolution result in ASTM E 1000 and ISO 17636-2 in different optimum values for the magnification factor for a given focal spot size of a X—ray tube and the basic spatial resolution of the detector. The higher contrast sensitivity, an advantage of digital radiography, compared to film radiography is furthermore improved when using higher X-ray voltages as used with film and smaller focal spots of the X-ray tubes. This allows a higher distance between object and detector resulting in reduced object scatter in the image. The interactions between all these parameters will be discussed and simple rules for practitioners will be derived in this contribution.